July 15, 2007 VOLUME 38
E-ZAN VOICE OF WOMEN AGAINST FUNDAMENTALISM IN IRAN
To our readers,
The fundamentalist regime in Iran uses Islam as a weapon to impose tight restrictions on women, such as requiring them to Islamic coverings at all times or have a male guardian's permission to work or travel. Women are not allowed to become presidents or judges , and a man's court testimony is considered twice as important as a woman's. No to mention the horrific practices such as stoning of men and women have continued despite international pressure.
While Iranian women continue to face the most inhumane treatment, their resilience and resistance continues to frighten the regime. For more than two decades courageous Muslim women and men have led the efforts to reveal the true face of the Islamic fundamentalism in Iran. Women's role is most noticeable in anti-regime protests and rallies both inside and outside of Iran. In every aspect Iranian women's movement symbolizes the popular will that is dedicated to remove this regime from power.
The most alarming message for Tehran's leaders is the women's call for equality. In recent days Iran's supreme leader, Khamenei, once again warned Iranian women that they are not allowed to reinterpret "Islamic law" and more importantly follow Western conventions with respect to gender rights. He said: "Some issues about women, which exist in religious jurisprudence, are not the final say. It is possible to interpret new points through research by a skillful (male) jurists." Khamenei criticized activists who have pushed for a concept of equal rights and added "In our country...some activist women, and some men, have been trying to play with Islamic rules in order to match international conventions related to women, this is wrong."
Iranian women's response is " go where you belong, the dustbin of history." The time has come to put an end to this regime and women have championed this call in the past 27 years.
E-Zan Featured Headlines
UK Daily Mail - June 20, 2007
A man and woman have been sentenced to death by
stoning for adultery in Iran but the judiciary has ordered a stay of execution,
Iranian news agencies reported today. A report in the Etemad-e Melli daily and
women's rights activists said that the two were to be stoned Thursday morning in
a cemetery in the town of Takestan in the northern province of Qazvin. The
report also stated that the executions were so near that "the required plans to
carry out the verdict were made." Further details were not given on what
preparations were carried out. Western countries and rights groups have
criticised Iran for issuing stoning sentences.The penalty of stoning usually
involves victims being buried up to their midriffs and then pelted to death with
stones that are not big enough to kill instantly. A male convict is buried
up to his waist with his hands tied behind his back, while a female offender is
buried up to her neck with her hands also buried. The spectators and officials
attending the public execution start throwing stones and rocks at the convict,
who is theoretically released if he is able to free himself. Iranian judiciary
officials say stonings have not been carried out for years, adding that such
sentences are routinely commuted to other forms of execution or lighter
The Associated Press - June 20, 2007
Iranian judicial authorities have halted the planned
stoning to death of a man and woman convicted of adultery following protests
from Norway and other countries, the Norwegian Foreign Ministry said Wednesday.
An Iranian justice official denied that any such stoning had been planned.
Norwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Stoere summoned the Iranian ambassador to
Oslo on Wednesday after an Iranian human rights activist said the man and woman
were set to be stoned to death Thursday in Qazvin province, west of Tehran. In a
statement, Stoere said he had told the ambassador that which violated human
rights. He also told the ambassador that the Norwegian parliament's
foreign affairs committee would likely cancel a planned visit to Iran next week
if the stoning was carried out. Later Wednesday, Stoere told Norwegian news
agency NTB that he had received information that Iranian judicial
authorities had stayed the execution. Western diplomats in Tehran had also
raised the issue with Iranian authorities, a Norwegian Foreign Ministry official
said. Speaking on condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the
matter, the official said the Western protests may have influenced the Iranian
auhtorities' decision to stop the stoning.
Agence France Presse - June 20, 2007
An Iranian-French journalism student is being
prevented from leaving Iran after spending a month in jail for interviewing
opposition members, Reporters Without Borders said Wednesday. Mehrnoushe Solouki
has been under de facto house arrest in Tehran since March when she was freed
from Tehran's Evin prison where she was interrogated and confined to a cell with
a permanently-lit neon light, the group said. Solouki, a doctoral student in
Montreal, Canada, had obtained permission from Iranian authorities to produce a
documentary film on the aftermath of the Iran-Iraq war, said Ajar Smouni, a
spokeswoman for Reporters Without Borders. But she was arrested on February 17
after interviewing family members of the opposition People's Mujahedeen who said
they had been victims of repression, Smouni said. Solouki, 38, who holds Iranian
and French citizenship, was freed on March 19 after posting bail of 80,000 euros
(107,000 dollars) and has since been under house arrest in Tehran. Iranian
authorities confiscated her notes and film footage and have since called her in
for questioning, according to her lawyer in France, William Bourdon, who said
they have threatened to jail her again unless she cooperates. The lawyer said
Solouki had been given her French passport back, but that authorities were
refusing to let her leave. "This is a very worrying situation," said Bourdon,
who has raised her plight with Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner. The foreign
ministry said it was in contact with Tehran about Solouki's case, with spokesman
Jean-Baptiste Mattei saying that "we obviously hope that the situation can be
resolved and that she will be able to have full freedom of movement."
Iran Focus - July 3, 2007
Iran's judiciary has sentenced a women's right
activist to lashes and prison time for taking part in an anti-government protest
last year, state media reported. Delaram Ali, who had taken part in a
demonstration in Tehran on 12 June 2006 demanding greater women's rights, was
sentenced to 10 lashes and given a 2-year-and-20-month suspended prison term
sentence. The announcement was made by Nasrin Sotoudeh, Delaram's lawyer. Her
comments were carried by the government-owned news agency ILNA. Delaram had been
charged with "participating in an illegal gathering", carrying out "propaganda
activities against the state", and "disturbing public order".
Reuters News Agency - July 4, 2007
Activists should not try to change Islamic laws relating to women's rights, Iran's supreme leader said on Wednesday, two days after one campaigner was reportedly sentenced to 34 months in jail and ten lashes. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, also lambasted the West for using women as a tool to advertise products, make money and to satisfy "disorderly and unlawful sexual needs," state television said. He was addressing a group of women, most dressed conservatively in head-to-toe black chadors, in Tehran ahead of Thursday's anniversary of the birth of Prophet Mohammad's daughter, Fatima, when Iran honors mothers and women. Campaigners say Iranian women face difficulties in getting a divorce and criticize inheritance laws they say are unjust and the fact their court testimony is worth half that of a man's. The Islamic Republic rejects allegations it is discriminating against women, saying it follows sharia law. "We are witnessing in our country that some women activists and some men are trying to play with Islamic laws ... in order to harmonize them with international conventions related to women," Khamenei said. "This is wrong." "They shouldn't see the solution in changing Islamic jurisprudence laws," Khamenei, Iran's highest authority, was quoted as saying. But he indicated some Islamic rules regarding women could change if jurisprudence research led to a new understanding, state television said. Although women are legally entitled to hold most jobs in Iran, it remains a male-dominated society. They cannot run for president or become judges but in recent years they have started to work in police and fire departments.
UK Daily Mail - July 11, 2007
An Iranian woman faces being stoned to death for having an affair with a married man. Mother- of- two Mokarrameh Ebrahimi has spent the last 11 years in jail for adultery with Jafar Kiani. Authorities in Tehran confirmed yesterday that Kiani had been executed last week. Now human rights groups fear 43-year-old Ebrahimi will suffer the same brutal fate. A stoning pit, in which she will be buried up to her neck, has already been prepared for her. Under Islamic law a male convict is buried up to the waist with his hands tied behind his back, while a female is usually buried up to her neck. Spectators and officials then carry out the execution by hurling rocks and stones. The stones are deliberately chosen to be large enough to cause pain, but not big enough to kill the person in just one or two strikes. Kiani and Ebrahimi were jailed in 1996 and their two children, one aged 11, are believed to live in prison with their mother. The stoning of Jafa Kiani brings to at least 110 the number of executions - by public hanging - carried in Iran this year. The death penalty is automatically imposed for murder, rape, armed robbery, blasphemy, serious drug trafficking, repeated sodomy, adultery, prostitution, treason and espionage. Of the 24 juvenile offenders executed in Iran since 1990, 11 were still children by the time they died. Others were held in prison until their 18th birthday before being hanged.
NCRI Website - July 13, 2007
On Wednesday, the mullahs’ regime sentenced eight
women to death who are currently serving time in the Iranian prisons, the
state-run daily Etemad-Meli reported. The paper reported, “Eight women
have received death sentences by stoning in the Iranian prisons. At least, two
of them are in Evin Prison in Tehran, two in Sipedar Prison in [the
south-western city of] Ahwaz, one in [the northern city] of Tabriz, one in
Varamin [in suburban Tehran], one in Chobin Prison in [the western city of
Qazvin], and the last one in Orumieh Prison [northwestern Iran], are spending
time in fear and despair.”
Iran Focus - July 15, 2007
Iranian authorities hanged a woman in public in the
north-western province of East Azerbaijan, state media reported on Sunday.
The unnamed woman was hanged in public in the provincial capital Tabriz, the daily Tehran-e Emrouz wrote. The report put her age at 29. She was accused of murder and conspiring to kill. Iranian authorities routinely execute dissidents on bogus charges such as armed robbery, drug smuggling, and murder. In May 2006, at least 100,000 Azeris rallied in Tabriz against the publication of an insulting cartoon in the official daily Iran. The city has since been prone to anti-government demonstrations and full-scale riots.
Reuters News Agency - July 15, 2007
Iranian police will intensify a crackdown on women
flouting Islamic dress code, a police official told a newspaper on Sunday, in
the first reinforcement of regular summertime campaigns. Such crackdowns have
become a regular feature of Iranian life, but it is the first time police have
pledged to toughen up measures that began in April. A human rights group on
Saturday criticised Iran for abuses like police crackdowns on violations of the
Islamic dress code. It said some 488 men and women were detained during the
first days of the crackdown. "From Mordad (the Iranian month starting on July
23) police numbers will double to confront such immoral behaviour," the Farhang-e
Ashti daily quoted Tehran police chief Ahmad Reza Radan as saying. Under Islamic
sharia law, imposed after Iran's 1979 revolution, women are obliged to cover
their hair and wear long, loose-fitting clothes to disguise their figures and
protect their modesty. Violators can receive lashes, fines or imprisonment. Many
young women, particularly in wealthier urban areas, challenge the limitations by
wearing calf-length Capri pants, tight-fitting, thigh-length coats in bright
colours and scarves pushed back to expose plenty of hair. The Islamic dress code
is less commonly challenged in poor suburbs and rural areas. Radan said those
women who resisted the guidance of police would appear before the courts.
"First, those who breach the dress code will be warned by the police ... But if they continue their ignorance ... they will be sent to courts," the police chief said. Since hardline President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won the presidency in 2005 after promising a return to the values of the revolution, hardliners have pressed for tighter controls on "immoral behaviour". Iran has repeatedly rejected criticism by rights groups over such crackdowns, saying the country's efforts were aimed at "fighting morally corrupt people."
E-Zan Featured Reports
Inciting Genocide -
Absolutely---- but What about Crimes Against Humanity?
By Jila Kazerounian
June 25, 2007
On Wednesday June 20th, 2007 the U.S. House of Representatives passed a resolution demanding from the United Nations to charge the Iranian President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad with violating the 1948 Convention on Genocide, as he has called for destruction of Israel. Article 2 of the Convention defines genocide as the acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. And article 3 calls the following acts punishable:
* Conspiracy to commit genocide;
* Direct and public incitement to commit genocide;
* Attempt to commit genocide;
* Complicity in genocide.
Ahmadinejad has called for destruction of Israel in a number of occasions. His famous declaration was: "As the Imam (Ayatollah Khomeini) said, Israel must be wiped off the map." It is nauseating that the Ohio Congressman Kucinich and some appeasers of the Iranian regime try to explain how "wipe off the map" does not really mean "wipe off the map" in Farsi and Ahmadinejad only means regime change in Israel. Let's look at two direct quotes from Iran's official sites from Khomeini himself: "We must all rise, destroy Israel" and "Israel must be eradicated from the page of history." As someone who is fluent in both Farsi and English, I testify that "wipe off" (the word in Farsi) really translates to "wipe off" meaning "eradicated" and nothing was lost in translation. The leadership of the Islamic Republic as a whole, from the so-called "pragmatist" former President Rafsanjani to the "reformist" smiley face former President Khatami all believe in this ideological pillar of Islamic fundamentalism.
Coincidentally, the House resolution was passed on June 20th. This Day bears great significance for Iranian people. On June 20th, 1981 Khomeini's regime brutally attacked peaceful demonstration of more than 500,000 Iranian people in Tehran. Thousands were arrested. Young girls and boys were executed within few weeks. Their pictures appeared in the State-run newspapers calling on their parents to claim the body of their loved ones from morgues.
In July 1981, Time magazine ran an article entitled: "Terror in the Name of God". Its focus was on twelve girls who were brutally executed by the government of Iran because they took part in a demonstration for democracy on June 20th, 1981. The following is a paragraph out of this article:
... The Islamic judge who sentenced them--Ayatullah Mohammadi Gilani--did not even know who they were. The twelve girls, the oldest 18, the others under 16, refused to identify themselves in court. When Gilani asked their names, each in turn replied, "Mojahed" (member of MEK/PMOI). To the question "Child of?" each replied, "The people of Iran." Gilani solved the problem of identifying the girls by having them photographed. Then he consigned them to the firing squad. Islamic guards led the dozen girls to the courtyard of Evin Prison in Tehran...As the guards began to blindfold them, the girls started chanting, "Death to fascism! Death to Khomeini!"...Three days later, the clergy-controlled newspaper Ettela'at printed the girls' pictures with a terse message asking the parents to call for the bodies...
On June 20th 1981, the clerical regime in Iran began an unprecedented massacre against its own citizens. 120,000 political prisoners have been viciously murdered since then; tens of thousands of them women who courageously stood up to tyranny. Slightest voice of dissent was - and continues to be - crushed. Crime against humanity, as defined in International law consists of: acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. By any international standards, atrocities committed in large scale by the leadership of Iranian regime against Iranian citizens are crimes against humanity. How can Mr. Kucinich and the rest of mullah's apologists wash this one away and find an alternative definition for "massacre"?
Ahmadinejad and the rest of the clerical leadership in Iran must be condemned by the United Nations Security Council and should be charged and taken to the international tribunals for inciting genocide as well as crimes against humanity.
'Islamic bicycle' can't slow
By Farzaneh Milani
June 29, 2007
The Islamic Republic of Iran has
devised an "Islamic bicycle." This new vehicle comes fully equipped with a cabin
to conceal parts of a female cyclist's body.
The new technology is less about the bike and more about suppressing women. Iran, unlike Saudi Arabia, allows women to drive cars. In fact, Iran's top race car driver, Laleh Seddigh, is a woman. Women also ride motorcycles, although they must be accompanied by a man (and must sit behind him).
But Iran forbids women from riding bicycles (thus, the newly designed bike). The belief is that sexuality is easily stimulated in both sexes. The country's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, announced in 1999 that "women must avoid anything that attracts strangers, so riding bicycles or motorcycles by women in public places causes corruption and is thus forbidden."
Vigilantes, ever ready to terrorize women who dare transgress, attack female bicyclists. When Fae'zeh Rafsanjani, who was elected to Iran's fifth Parliament, insisted there was nothing un-Islamic about bicycle riding, militants physically assaulted her. Never mind that she was the daughter of a former Iranian president.
Surely the desire to keep women in their "proper place" is not the monopoly of Iran. Mobile, independent women are feared in other parts of the world. Vehicles also are seen as upsetting domesticity by giving women the means to travel to forbidden territories.
These fears surfaced in 19th-century America. The newly invented bicycle, which was also used by women, was seen as a threat to the social order and a provocation to promiscuity. It was also seen as a catalyst for change. Suffragists and early women's rights advocates called it a "freedom machine." Susan B. Anthony said, "The bicycle has done more for the emancipation of women than anything else in the world."
Iranian women know gender apartheid and understand the value of freedom of movement. In a 2000 movie, The Day I Became a Woman, one protagonist, Ahoo, is a fully covered woman participating in an all-women cycling tournament. She is speeding ahead when her husband threatens to divorce her. "Get off the bike," he orders. Ahoo prefers divorce. She leans over the handlebar and pedals faster. Then her father, brothers and village elders gallop beside her on horseback and command her to get off. Ahoo defies them, picking up speed and focusing on the road ahead.
Iranian women, like Ahoo, have broken out of the bounds of established spaces and cultural limits. The bicycle ban, like the Islamic bicycle, is a desperate but ultimately futile attempt to control them.
Dark Days for Women
By Omid Memarian
Inter Press Service
July 09, 2007
Judicial authorities in Iran have sentenced two women activists who participated in a peaceful protest against discriminatory laws in June 2006 to more than 30 months in jail and ten lashes. The harsh sentences come amid the recent arrests of more than a dozen student activists, the government closure of the popular Hammihan newspaper, and pressure on Iran's Labour News Agency to stop its activities, in another sweeping crackdown on the Islamic Republic's civil society. Delaram Ali, who is a member of the "One Million Signatures for Equality Campaign", was sentenced to 34 months in prison plus ten lashes on Jul. 1. A day later, Alieh Eghdamdoust, another women activist, received a sentence of 40 months and 20 lashes.
Their advocacy campaign was launched to change the discriminatory laws against women in Iran's constitution.
"There is no precedent for such ruthless sentences against women. The punishments do not fit the alleged crimes," Nasrin Sotoodeh, Delaram's lawyer, told IPS by telephone from Tehran.
"These ladies are facing these sentences because of participation in a peaceful gathering, which is basically permitted by Iran's constitution. Article 27 states that people have the right to peacefully gather unless they carry guns or violate Islamic laws. The government must provide proof that these women have violated the law."
Some of the main grievances of the campaign are equal inheritance rights (women currently receive half of what men do), the elimination of polygamy and fair custody rights. "In all the women's protests to date, they peacefully convened to change such laws," added Sotoodeh, who represents many women rights activists in Iran.
The pressure on women activists increased dramatically when government security agents and police violently put an end to a peaceful protest in Tehran in June 2006. Dozens of participants were arrested and released afterwards on bail.
The second round of confrontation occurred when security agents arrested more than 30 women who had gathered in front of Tehran's Islamic Revolutionary Court to support five women on trial inside the courthouse on Mar. 4, 2007 for participating in the protest rally.
Four of the women in that trial ended up being sentenced to one to three years in prison. They have filed an appeal.
"Delaram Ali's arm was hurt and had to be put in a cast for two months, when she was attacked by female police officers. We filed a lawsuit against the police. It has been a year now, and although we understand the case investigator has asked the police to attend a briefing session to provide information about the incident, they have not honoured this request," Sotoodeh said.
"The last update is that the case investigator has declared that if a [police] representative does not appear before the court, the court will be forced to issue a verdict in their absence. While these women's complaints about their beatings [by the police] have not been processed, one by one they have received heavy sentences, and are exposed to further violence," she said.
The campaign against discriminatory laws in Iran has caught Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei's attention, indicating that the women's voices are reaching high-ranking ayatollahs.
"In our country... some activist women, and some men, have been trying to play around with Islamic rule in order to match international conventions relating to women," Khamenei said during a speech last Thursday to commemorate National Women's Day according to his official website and the state-run television. "This is wrong."
However, he emphasised that "some of the women issues which exist in religious jurisprudence are not the final word and it is possible to make new interpretations through research by a skillful jurist." The supreme leader has absolute power over all state matters.
Despite all their achievements since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, women still endure tight restrictions under the constitution, such as requiring a male guardian's permission to work or travel abroad. Women are not allowed to become judges or run for president, and a man's court testimony is considered twice as valid as a woman's.
Fariba Davoodi Mohajer, another activist in the women's movement, who was sentenced to five years in prison last May but is currently free on bail pending appeal, believes that women's quest for equality raises critical questions about the validity of a constitution based on Sharia, or Islamic Law.
"The hardliners want to control the women's movement at the domestic and international levels. In many of these cases, harsh sentences, repeated summons or interrogations, and legal and illegal threats are designed to stop the women's movement," Davoodi told IPS. "These sentences by the hardliners are intended to intimidate civil society and prevent the growth of independent social movements."
"In recent years, the women's movement has acted as a catalyst to refuel student and labour movements which had been silenced. The latest crackdown against women is an effort to pacify the civil society and intimidate other activists such as students, labour leaders, journalists and activists."
In an interview with IPS, Mahboubeh Abbasgholizadeh, editor of Farzaneh, a quarterly publication dedicated to women's issues, and director of the NGO Training Centre in Tehran, said that "increased police brutality over the past few months, paired with harsh sentences, clearly convey the message that public gatherings and protests will no longer be tolerated."
Abbasogholizadeh, who was one of the 33 women imprisoned last March, believes that the hardliners' confrontations with activists reflect their fear that such demands for change are a strategy to overthrow the Islamic regime.
"A faction of the hardliners identifies our peaceful activities as tactics for a so-called 'soft overthrow' of the regime. This paranoia has inflicted additional pressure on civil society. They do not realise that women's demand are basic necessities and impossible to ignore," she said. "Compared to two years ago, all public resources have been removed from civil society activists, especially women, and have been handed to religious propaganda and charity organisations."
"The hardliners have a plan for extensive suppression, beginning with pressuring independent papers. Therefore, it is safe to say that the prison sentences for those women must be viewed within the larger picture: authorities who believe in suppression of civil society have gained momentum over the more moderate factions who do think that the Islamic government should control or halt these types of activities."
Iranian Women. "Fighting back against fundamentalism"
By Sarvnaz Chitsaz
July 15, 2007
Women's struggle for equality
cannot take place without us spearheading the fight against fundamentalism and
its global threats. As an Iranian woman, I have been witness to oppression of my
people and the women of my homeland by the ruling
fundamentalists for over two decades. But, the world has failed to reflect on what has been experienced by Iranian women. Furthermore, the potential threat of growing fundamentalism is not clear to most.
Not much attention is driven to the issue in the media, and governments are following their own policies of appeasement and commercial interests. Economic interests have even silenced all human rights concerns. Experience has shown that this phenomenon will not stop in Iran or even in the Middle East. Bearing witness to such growth of extremism and fundamentalism towards other women, we cannot be indifferent. The last Human Rights Special Rapporteur to Iran, Professor Capithorn, wrote many years ago that Iran resembles a huge prison for women. Women in Iran are under continuous control and scrutiny by over
20 oppressive government agencies investigating and controlling how women dress and behave with men.
And to all these, we have to add hazardous outcomes of the effect of extreme poverty and misogynist laws:
- According to surveys, over 73 percent of women in Iran have become victimized by violence at least once, but contrary to other countries, the law in Iran gives an open hand to men to exert violence.
- In June 2006, 5200 cases have been filed regarding sexual assault against young girls in family environments.
- Increase in practices such as polygamy and temporary marriage, has actually made way to prostitution.
- 35% of women university
graduates are unemployed. Iranian girls have managed to fill over 60% of
capacity in the universities. But the mullahs are planning to impose sexual
discriminations for university attendance in
their so called Parliament. The goal is to limit women from entering universities. These are certainly a small fraction of what the mullahs have done against women in Iran.
Now, one should ask, what is the duty of women's movement regarding such discrimination and tyranny? Campaigns to force the regime to bring about reform in its structure of government and laws regarding women have no place in a religious dictatorship based on the concept of Velayat Faghih (Supreme Leadership.) Twenty-eight years of experience has shown that the religious fascism ruling Iran is a backward system incapable of any reform. If it retreats from its oppressive and misogynist laws even one step, the regime's whole foundation will come apart. From 1996 to 2004, during Khatami's presidency, he claimed to reform mullahs' government from within. He had the majority of the Parliament in his favor and his international allies also extended full support for him. But nothing changed. Not only misogynist practices did not diminish, but it even escalated.
Khatami's reform project was a big demonstration of the fact that even the reform claims of this regime are only to be used to increase oppression and accelerate the development of nuclear weapons.
What is the solution?
In March 2004, in a women's gathering in Paris, when Mrs. Rajavi called for the formation of an international women's front against fundamentalism, Elizabeth and I along with some other friends took it upon ourselves to answer this call. The first step to stand against this phenomenon is to inform and expose. It is for this reason that every year we consider it our duty to address the subject on International Women's Day. We call for help and participation from women who themselves can feel this threat, apart from any national and regional orientations, from any ideological, religious or racial preferences. There is a common root and a common pain. We are all women and can understand each other's pain. We can feel the pain and suffering caused by the expansion of fundamentalism growing stronger than three years ago. Therefore we must emphasize the importance of exposing this phenomenon. We should ask our governments to incline all economic and diplomatic relations with this regime to improvements in human rights.
More delays will threaten the women's movement in Iran and across the globe. This of course should evolve our active participation in an overall struggle against fundamentalism to expose its global threat as a religious fascism that is trying to obtain nuclear weapons. Our struggle for equality cannot take place without us spearheading the fight against fundamentalism and its global threats.
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Volume 38, July 15, 2007
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